Breast Cancer

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Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is the most common offensive cancer in women and the second leading source of cancer death in women after lung cancer.

Developments in screening and treatment for breast cancer have enhanced survival rates dramatically since 1989. According to the American Cancer Society (ACS), there are more than 3.1 million victims in the United States. The chance of any woman dying from this chronic fatal is around 1 in 38 (2.6%).

The ACS estimates that 268,600 women will receive a diagnosis of offensive breast cancer, and 62,930 people will receive a diagnosis of noninvasive cancer in 2019.

In the same year, the ACS report that 41,760 women will die as a result of this fatal. However, due to developments in treatment, death rates from breast cancer have been decreasing since 1989.

Awareness of the signs and the need for screening are important methods of reducing the risk. In rare cases, breast cancer can also affect men, but this article will focus on breast cancer in women.

Symptoms of Breast Cancer

  • Nipple changes
  • Nipple changes Open pop-up dialog box
  • A breast knob or thickening that feels different from the adjoining tissue
  • Change in the size, shape or look of a breast
  • Changes to the skin over the breast, such as dimpling
  • A newly overturned nipple
  • Peeling, ascending, crusting or flaking of the pigmented zone of skin surrounding the nipple (areola) or breast skin
  • Soreness or pitting of the skin over your breast, like the skin of an orange

When to see a doctor

If you find a lump or other variation in your breast — even if a recent mammogram was usual — make an appointment with your doctor for prompt assessment.

Types of Breast Cancer

There are several types of breast cancer, and they are wrecked into two main groups: “invasive” and “noninvasive,” or in situ. While invasive cancer has spread from the breast ducts or glands to other parts of the breast, noninvasive cancer has not spread from the original tissue.

These two categories are used to describe the most common types of breast cancer, which include:

  • Ductal carcinoma in situ. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a noninvasive condition. With DCIS, the cancer cells are confined to the ducts in your breast and haven’t entered the surrounding breast tissue.
  • Lobular carcinoma in situ. Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is cancer that grows in the milk-producing glands of your breast. Like DCIS, the cancer cells haven’t entered the surrounding tissue.
  • Invasive ductal carcinoma. Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) is the most common kind of breast cancer. This type of breast cancer begins in your breast’s milk ducts and then invades nearby tissue in the breast. Once the breast cancer has spread to the tissue outside your milk ducts, it can begin to spread to other adjacent organs and tissue.
  • Invasive lobular carcinoma. Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) first develops in your breast’s lobules and has entered nearby tissue.

Causes of Breast Cancer

After puberty, a woman’s breast consists of fat, connective tissue, and thousands of lobules. These are small glands that produce milk for breastfeeding. Tiny tubes, or ducts, carry the milk to the nipple.

Cancer causes the cells to multiply uncontrollably. They do not die at the usual point in their life cycle. This extreme cell growth causes cancer because the tumor uses nutrients and energy and deprives the cells around it.

It usually starts in the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply them with milk. From there, it can spread to other parts of the body.



Stage 1A: The primary tumor is 2 centimeters wide or less and the lymph nodes are not affected.

Stage 1B: Cancer is found in nearby lymph nodes, and either there is no tumor in the breast, or the tumor is smaller than 2 cm.


Stage 2A: The tumor is smaller than 2 cm and has spread to 1–3 nearby lymph nodes, or it’s between 2 and 5 cm and hasn’t spread to any lymph nodes.

Stage 2B: The tumor is between 2 and 5 cm and has spread to 1–3 axillary (armpit) lymph nodes, or it’s larger than 5 cm and hasn’t spread to any lymph nodes.


Stage 3A: The cancer has spread to 4–9 axillary lymph nodes or has enlarged the internal mammary lymph nodes, and the primary tumor can be any size. Tumors are greater than 5 cm and the cancer has spread to 1–3 axillary lymph nodes or any breastbone nodes.

Stage 3B: A tumor has entered the chest wall or skin and may or may not have invaded up to 9 lymph nodes.

Stage 3C: Cancer is found in 10 or more axillary lymph nodes, lymph nodes near the collarbone, or internal mammary nodes.

Preventive Measures

Wedge-shaped pattern for breast self-exam

Self-exam Open pop-up dialog box

Request your doctor about screening. Discuss with your doctor when to begin breast cancer screening exams and tests, such as clinical breast exams and mammograms.

Talk to your doctor about the aids and risks of screening. Together, you can decide what breast cancer screening approaches are right for you.

Become accustomed to your breasts through breast self-exam for breast awareness. Women may choose to become familiar with their breasts by occasionally examining their breasts during a breast self-exam for breast awareness. If there is a new change, lumps or other uncommon signs in your breasts, talk to your doctor promptly.

Breast awareness can’t prevent it, but it may help you to better understand the normal variations that your breasts undergo and identify any unusual signs and symptoms.

Drink alcohol in temperance, if at all. Limit the amount of alcohol you drink to no more than one drink a day, if you choose to drink.

Exercise most days of the week. Target for at least 30 minutes of exercise on most days of the week. If you haven’t been active lately, ask your doctor whether it’s OK and start gradually.

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