Government of India Act 1935

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April 29, 2020
Congress Ministries (1937-1939)
April 29, 2020
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Government of India Act 1935

The Government of India Act 1935 was given by British Government within the year 1935. It was one of the lengthiest Acts at that time as it contained 321 sections and 10 schedules. Once the act was passed the govt saw that it had been too lengthy to be regulated efficiently and thus, the govt decided to divide it into two parts for the act to function in a proper manner:

1- The Government of India Act, 1935

2- The Government of Burma Act,1935

The act gave new dimensions to the affairs of the country by the event of an All India Federation, Provisional autonomy and therefore the removal of the dyarchy. It was also the last constitution of British India, before the country was divided, in 1947, into two parts -India and Pakistan. The act was implemented and formed from the sources like the Simon Commission Report, the three round table conferences etc. which were earlier declined by the government. The Act proposed various amendments in context to the act earlier framed within the year 1919.

Read Also: The Pakistan Resolution

The main features of the Act of 1935 were:

  • A Federation of India was promised for, comprising both provinces and states. The provisions of the Act establishing the federal central government weren’t to travel into operation until a specified number of rulers of states had signed Instruments of Accession. Since, this didn’t happen, the central government continued to function in accordance with the 1919 Act and only a part of the 1935 Act handling the provincial governments went into operation.
  • The governor remained the top of the central administration and enjoyed wide powers concerning administration, legislation and finance.
  • No finance bill might be placed within the Central Legislature without the consent of the governor.
  • The Federal Legislature was to contains two houses, the Council of State (Upper House) and therefore the Federal Assembly (Lower House).
  • The Council of State was to contains 260 members, out of whom 156 were to be elected from British India and 104 to be nominated by the rulers of princely states.
  • The Federal Assembly was to contains 375 members; out of which 250 were to be elected by the Legislative Assemblies of British Indian provinces while 125 were to be nominated by the rulers of princely states.
  • The Central Legislature had the proper to pass any bill, but the bill required the approval of the governor before it became Law. On the opposite hand governor had the facility to border ordinances.
  • The Indian Council was abolished. In its place, few advisers were nominated to assist the Secretary of State for India.
  • The Secretary of State wasn’t expected to interfere in matters that the Governor addressed, with the assistance of Indian Ministers.
  • The provinces were given autonomy with respect to subjects delegated to them.
  • Diarchy, which had been established within the provinces by the Act of 1919, was to be established at the middle. However, it came to an end in the provinces.
  • Two new provinces Sindh and Orissa were created.
  • Reforms were introduced in N. W. F. P. as were in the other provinces.
  • Separate electorates were continued as before.
  • One-third Muslim representation within the Central Legislature was guaranteed.
  • Autonomous provincial governments in 11 provinces, under ministries responsible to legislatures, would be setup.
  • Burma and Aden were separated from India.
  • The Federal Court was established in the Center.
  • The Reserve Bank of India was established.

The Act of 1935 did not win appreciation from various sectors. Both the Muslim League and therefore the Indian National Congress expressed their dissatisfaction over the Act. Hindu leader Madam Mohan greatly criticized this Act and Pandat Jawahar Lal Nehru said on the emergency rights of Governor-General and Governors that this Act as long as this Act was sort of a machine that had strong brakes and no engine. Muslim leader Muhammad Ali Jinnah said this scheme thoroughly rotten fundamentally bad and totally unacceptable.

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