Typically, obstacle in mental development begins in childhood, followed by mental decline progressing to dementia in adolescence. Signs of neurological participation, including ataxia, spasticity and muscle weakness, are usually deceptive by the end of the second decade. The neurological signs upsurge progressively, and in some patients death, which in the majority of cases has occurred in the fifth or sixth decade, was attributable to spinal cord paralysis. Xanthomas, not usually visible until the third decade, occur most frequently in the Achilles ligaments but may also be present in the extensor tendons of the fingers and in other tendons. Tuberous xanthomas and xanthelasmas have also been renowned but are less common than tendon xanthomas.
In its efforts to explain mental growth and change, mainstream cognitive developmental research has focused more on phenomena that are assumed to characterize development universally, and less on individual differences. Nonetheless, a number of traditional and developing areas suggest that systematic differences not only in cognitive style and cognitive strategies, but also in more basic theoretical structure, may provide a means to tailor educational practice more closely to children’s specific learning needs.
The development of children’s and adolescents’ mental and cognitive abilities has a marvelous influence on how coaches teach and advance players’ skills in sport or any other activity or function. One of the commonly used and quoted sources for this mental and cognitive development is Piaget. Piaget clinched from early observations of developing children that we should not be as interested in the amount of what a child knows as we are in the eminence of his or her thinking and manner of problem solving. Piaget proposed three main ideas regarding cognitive development: assimilation, accommodation, and schema. Assimilation is the “taking in” and adapting of information or experiences to add to an individual’s existing knowledge or strategies. Accommodation is the modifying and adjusting of one’s strategies and notions to arrive at new experiences and information. Finally, schema is the action or approach that results from assimilation and accommodation.
During the period between ages 8 to 11, the child is able to understand tangible mental concepts. He or she is taking in a great deal of information or adapting. During this time period, children have a greater acceptance of whatever information they are given, with little questioning. Piaget refers to this time period as actual operations. The child can accept rules and structure reasonably well during this time period.
From ages 12 to 15, the individual questions the information she or he is given, which often generates a great deal of confusion. Outright acceptance of directions and instruction decreases as greater amounts of information and more radical thought processes dominate. Piaget refers to this period as formal operations. During this age, the individual is learning how to manipulate ideas in more complex ways and to systematically and methodically solve a problem. Individuals at this phase will be able to solve problems more scientifically than children in the 8- to 11-year-old age range.
Finally, during the ages from 16 to 18, teenagers become capable of more complex abstractions and concepts. They can better comprehend differences and problem solve at a higher level. Individuals in this age cluster will challenge rules and will be less accepting of hard and fast rules in coaching situations.