What is Noun?
A noun is a person, place, or thing. The category of things may sound super vague, but in this case it means inanimate objects, abstract concepts, and activities. Phrases and other parts of speech can also behave like nouns and can be the subject in a sentence, as in Jogging is a fun exercise. Here, the verb jogging acts like a noun and is the subject of the sentence.
A pronoun is a word used to replace a noun.
Pronouns are one of the eight parts of speech which are adjectives, adverbs
conjunctions, interjections, nouns, prepositions, pronouns, and verbs.
Even though they are classified as a different part of speech to nouns, pronouns are nouns. They always play the role of a noun in a sentence.
James is the first choice for the post. He has applied for it twice already.
(He is a pronoun. In this example, it replaces the proper noun James.)
(It is a pronoun. Here, it replaces the common noun post.)
Some / Who / This
(The term pronoun covers lots of words, and all three words above are classified as pronouns. There is whole section dedicated to pronouns.)
Gerunds are formed from verbs. They end -ing. They are a type of common noun.
I love baking.
(baking – the name of an activity; it is formed from the verb to bake.)
Thinking is required to solve this problem.
(thinking – the name of an activity; it is formed from the verb to think.)
Gerunds are different from other nouns because they can take an object or be modified with an adverb.
I love baking bread.
(Here, bread is the object of the gerund baking.)
Thinking laterally is required to solve this problem.
(Here, the gerund thinking has been modified by the adverb laterally.)
Concrete nouns are people, places, or things that we can experience with our five senses (taste, touch, sight, hearing, or smell).
Concrete nouns can be divided into common nouns and proper nouns.
A common noun is a noun that’s not the name of any particular person, place, or thing (for instance, singer, river, and tablet).
A proper noun is a noun that refers to a specific person, place, or thing (Lady Gaga, Monongahela River, and iPad).
A proper noun or proper name is a noun representing unique entities, as distinguished from common nouns which describe a class of entities.
Abstract nouns, on the other hand, refer to abstract objects; that is, ideas or concepts. While this distinction is sometimes exclusive, some nouns have multiple senses, including both concrete and abstract ones; consider, for example, the noun “art”, which usually refers to a concept but which can refer to a specific artwork in certain contexts.
Some abstract nouns developed etymologically by figurative extension from literal roots. These include drawback, fraction, holdout, and uptake. Similarly, some nouns have both abstract and concrete senses, with the latter having developed by figurative extension from the former. These include view, filter, structure, and key.
In English, many abstract nouns are formed by adding noun-forming suffixes to adjectives or verbs. Examples are happiness, circulation and serenity.
Countable and Uncountable Nouns
Countable and Uncountable nouns vary from language to language. In some languages, there are no countable nouns. In addition, some nouns that are uncountable in English may be countable in other languages.
Countable nouns are common nouns that can take a plural, can combine with numerals or counting quantifiers, and can take an indefinite article such as a or an. Examples of count nouns are book, orange, cat, animal, man…
Uncountable nouns differ from count nouns in precisely that respect: they cannot take plurals or combine with number words or the above type of quantifiers.
For example, it is not possible to refer to a furniture or three furnitures. This is true even though the pieces of furniture comprising furniture could be counted. Thus the distinction between count and non-count nouns should not be made in terms of what sorts of things the nouns refer to, but rather in terms of how the nouns present these entities.
Many nouns have both countable and uncountable uses; for example, beer is countable in “He ordered a coffee. “, but uncountable in “Would you like some coffee?”
Collective nouns are nouns that refer to groups consisting of more than one individual or entity, even when they are inflected for the singular. Examples include flock, crowd, committee, choir, group, team. These nouns have slightly different grammatical properties than other nouns. For example, the noun phrases that they head can serve as the subject of a collective predicate, even when they are inflected for.
Most English compound nouns are noun phrases that include a noun modified by adjectives or noun adjuncts.
Most English compound nouns that consist of more than two words can be constructed recursively by combining two words at a time. Combining science and fiction, and then combining the resulting compound with writer, for example, can construct the compound science fiction writer. Some compounds, such as salt and pepper or mother-of-pearl, cannot be constructed in this way.