PAKISTAN AT THE CROSSROADS Book
The promotion of external ties by the military and civilians for security and socioeconomic reasons reflects the growing commonality of their worldview and (more or less illicit) interests. Their elite groups form a closely knit establishment comprising a few hundreds of families.
The fear of India was reinforced by the Afghan attitude. In the 1940s, Kabul had asked the British to let “their” (Kabul’s) Pashtun tribes decide whether they wanted to accede to Afghanistan or to become independent. Pakistan was not even an option. After the creation of Pakistan, Afghanistan refused to recognize the Durand Line as an international border. As a result, Pakistan was doubly unachieved, with Kashmir partly under the control of India and its western frontier still unofficial. To make things worse, some Afghan leaders supported the irredentist idea of Pashtunistan, which would have amalgamated the western districts of Pakistan to those of South Afghanistan to form a new, ill-defined, administrative unit.
Pakistani leaders turned first to the United States for support. Jinnah tried primarily to sell his country’s strategic location. In September 1947, he declared: “The safety of the North West Frontier is of world concern and not merely an internal matter
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