The Pakistan Resolution

Congress Ministries (1937-1939)
April 29, 2020
General Reading Books
April 30, 2020
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The Pakistan Resolution


With the introduction of political reforms in India by British , the Muslims realized that they might become a permanent minority during a democratic system and it might never be possible for them to protect their fundamental rights. They only constituted one fourth of the entire Indian population and were much lesser in number than the majority Hindu community. In order to protect their political, social and non secular rights they first demanded for separate electorates. However, thanks to the political developments that occurred within the country they realized that even the proper of separate electorates wouldn’t be enough and that they had to search for some other long term solution. The Pakistan Resolution, was written and ready by Muhammad Zafarullah Khan and was presented by A. K. Fazlul Huq, the Prime Minister of Bengal, was a proper political statement adopted by the All-India Muslim League on the occasion of its three-day general session in Lahore on 22–24 March 1940.

It was finally at it’s annual meeting held at Lahore on March 23, 1940, that the Muslim League for the first time categorically adopted the idea of partition of India as it’s final destination. The resolution that came to be known as the Pakistan Resolution was moved by the Bengal’s Chief minister, A. K. Fazlul Haq.

Jinnah’s address on this occasion gave clear expression to the basic concept underlying the resolution He said:

Quaid-e-Azam Addressing

“Hindus and therefore the Muslims belong to two different religions, philosophies, social customs and literature. They neither inter-marry nor inter-dine and, indeed they belong to 2 different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their concepts on life and of life are different. It is quite clear that Hindu and Muslims derive their inspiration from different sources of history. They have different epics, different heroes and different episodes. Very often the hero of 1 may be a foe of the opposite , and likewise, their victories and defeats overlap. To yoke together two such nations under one state, one as a numerical minority and therefore the other as a majority, must lead to growing discontent and final destruction of any fabric that may be so built up for the govt of such a state.”

“Mussalmans are a nation consistent with any definition of nation. We wish our people to develop to the fullest spiritual, cultural, economic, social and political life during a way that we expect best and in consonance with our own ideals and consistent with the genius of our people.”

The Pakistan Resolution

The Pakistan Resolution declared: “No constitutional plan would be workable or acceptable to the Muslims unless geographical contiguous units are demarcated into regions which should be so constituted with such territorial readjustments as may be necessary. That the areas during which the Muslims are numerically in majority as within the North-Western and Eastern zones of India should be grouped to constitute independent states during which the constituent units shall be autonomous and sovereign”.

It further reads, “That adequate, effective and mandatory safeguards shall be specifically provided within the constitution for minorities within the units and within the regions for the protection of their religious, cultural, economic, political, administrative and other rights of the minorities, with their consultation. Arrangements thus should be made for the safety of Muslims where they were during a minority”.

The Resolution repudiated the concept of United India and recommended the creation of an independent Muslim state consisting of Punjab, N. W. F. P., Sindh and Baluchistan in the northwest, and Bengal and Assam in the northeast. The Resolution was seconded by Maulana Zafar Ali Khan from Punjab,

Sardar Aurangzeb from the N. W. F. P., Sir Abdullah Haroon from Sindh, and Qazi Esa from Baluchistan, along side many others.

Hindu Reaction

The Hindu reaction was, of course, quick, bitter and malicious. They called the “Pakistan” demand “anti-national.” They characterized it as “vivisection; especially, they denounced it as imperialist – inspired to obstruct India’s march to freedom.” In denouncing the demand outright, they, however, missed the central fact of the Indian political situation; the astonishingly tremendous response of the Pakistan demand had elicited from the Muslim masses. They also did not take cognizance of the very fact that a hundred million Muslims were now supremely conscious of their distinct nationhood and were prepared to stake everything to actualize their self-perceived destiny – the creation of an independent Muslim state within the sub-continent.

British Reaction

The British were equally hostile to the Muslim demand for at least two important reasons. First, they’d long considered themselves because the architects of the unity of India and of an Indian nation. Second, that they had long regarded the super-imposed unity under tax Britannica as their greatest achievement and lasting contribution in history. And the Pakistan demand threatened to undo these presumed achievements on which British had long prided. However, despite the Hindu denunciation and therefore the British alarm, the course of Muslim, indeed Indian, politics was from now on firmly set towards Pakistan.


The Resolution was passed on March 23. It laid down only the principles, with the small print left to be figured out at a future date. It was made a neighborhood of the All India Muslim League’s constitution in 1941. It was on the premise of this resolution that in 1946 the Muslim League decided to travel for one state for the Muslims, rather than two.

Having passed the Pakistan Resolution, the Muslims of India changed their ultimate goal. Instead of seeking alliance with the Hindu community, they embarked on the path whose destination was a separate homeland for the Muslims of India

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